REMAKING SETTLLEMENTS. Tool Inventory:
Dollar and energy costs.
These are very approximate first estimates, to be improved in later revisions of the RemakingÉ study. The assumption is that the workshop and garden inventories would provide for four households or 15 adult people. The estimates are based on the items used on my homestead. Spare plumbing fittings and purchases of these for household maintenance is not included, due to difficulty of estimation, but a stock of garden irrigation equipment is included. Household plumping woud be best included under house construction, and little equipment would then be needed for maintenance. The embodied energy cost of steel is assumed at 44 MJ/Kg, to include upstream inputs. Note that annual costs are arrived at by dividing total costs by estimated equipment lifetime.
Totals arrived at:
Annual per capita dollar expenditure for the stock of tools and equipment ... $38.
Annual per capita embodiedenergy cost for the stock of tools and equipment ... 84 MJ, i.e., c.23kWh.
Although a full acounting would arrive at somewhat higher totals, the figures are reremarkably low.
WORKSHOP TOOLS; i.e., for homestead level workshop:
Hammers, tack, carpentry, heavy, sledge 100 10
Axe 50 3
Bow saw, 15 2
Carpentry hand saw s 100 2
Cross cut saw 100 2
Coping saw 10
Hack saw, blades 10
Pliers, needle nose, normal, pincers 50 1
Crow bar 50 5
Post hole augre 100 2
Screw drivers, 50
Hand drills, small medium, heavy 200 (?)
Electric bench grinder 12 v (?home made, motor tallied below) 100 5
Electric bench drill, 12 v. (home made, motor tallied below) 5 10
Woodworking chisels 100 1
Cold Chisels 20
Spanners 100 2
Wrenches, small shifter, medium, heavy. 200 5
Punches, -- centre, nail, leather 30
Pipe vice. (home made) 100 2
Knives 30 1
Tin snips 50 2
Pallette/putty knives 50
Taps and dies, 3/16Ó, ¼Ó, 5/16Ó, 3/8Ó, ½Ó 100 1
Pipe dies, ½Ó,3/4Ó, 1Ó 150? 2
Clamps, 10? From small to large 200 5
Wrecking bars, big, small 40 5
Files; saw, wood and steel, rasps. 70 2
Planes. 300 3
Saw setter 30
Glass cutters 30
Gas bottle, burner 100 5
Solder , irons
Grease/oil 1 Kg/y ??
Nails, screws, nuts and bolts (to ½Ó) 200 10
Steel wire ropes 300 20
Block and tackle, three sets of double pulleys (home made) 100
(Édollar cost mostly for rope)
Chains 100 30
Shackles, thimbles, turnbuckles 100 5
Needles and sewing kit
Car jacks, 4 @$5, second hand 20 10
12 volt c. one-quarter h.p. motors. 4@ $200 and 200 MJ
each embodied energy cost 800 5
Electrical equipment ?? a few simple hand tools, plus multi-metre, but not including scrap wire plus replacement globes
Totals for above categories.
Motors Four @ c. 12v x 20 W, at $200 $800
Assuming 15 people $53/pp
Assuming 10 year life $5/pp/y
Hand tools $1700
= 111 kg steel = 4,440 MJ
Assuming 15 people $113/pp
Assuming 40 year lifetime $2.8/pp/y
Total household workshop tools + motors
Additional tools for community level workshop.
Small metal working lathe. 1500 50
Wood turning lathe. (Home made .) 100 10
Heavier drill press. 200 20
Blacksmithing equipment. Few items apart from hammers.
Except for a small anvil. Blower could be leather
bellows, or old car fan.
Brazing, welding equipment. 500 5
Cylinders (rented from supplier) 180/y 80(?)
Running costs for gas and cylinder rental have not
been included. Use would be quite low, but these
costs are high relative to other outlays here, maybe
$400/y. However it should be possible to produce
the gases cheaply via local small industry, e.g.,
processing carbide and via electrolysis of water
in the production of hydrogen. 200 50
. Community workshop total $2,500
(not incl. cylinder rental.)
215 kg steel = 9,460 MJ
Assuming 50 people use workshop tools = $50/pp
Assuming10 year lifetime = $5/pp/y
NB. No electric hand drill, angle grinder, lawn mower or chainsaw included.
Total home plus community workshop tools
Household + community workshop dollar cost $12.7/pp/y
Household + community workshop embodied energy cost 31.4 MJ/pp/y
The assumption is that the equipment used at Pigface Point could be sufficient for 3+ households, or 10 people,
(but the set of pumps could provide for 20.) Lifetimes would vary, but an overall 10 years is assumed.
(Most wooden handles can be home made.)
Mattock, 40 2
Pick 40 2
Shovels, spades. 150 3
Rakes 100 3
Forks 100 3
Watering can 30 1
Buckets 5@15 = 75 4
Hoses 4 @ 20m = 80m 5
Pots, trays 100 10
Solar fruit dryer (Home made) 50 5
Wheelbarrows 250 20
Poly pipe. Difficult to estimate, but considerable length needed. Mostly/all small diameter, 12, 19, or 25 mm. A very uncertain estimate is equivalent of 300 m x 19m, = $200. Joiners, Ts, sprinklers etc. home-made brazed from copper tube; assume $100(??) and 5 kg (?)
Poly-pipe + copper $300
30 kJ poly pipe + 5 kg Copper, both @ 65MJ/Kg = 2,275 MJ
12 v pumps $350 and 330 MJ each(?) At Pig face Point 7
provide for 7 people, but probably could provide for 20(?). Lifetime
assumed, 10 years.
NB. Garden water tanks would need to be added.
Totals for garden tools plus pumps and equipment.
How to account community garden tools?
This seems too complex to estimate at this stage. Little equipment would seem to be needed to
establish or maintain woodlots, ponds, orchards. Animal pens and shelter and storage sheds
would be somewhat more costly. Aquaponic equipment would be costly, but long lived assuming
... for homestead workshop, community workshop, and homestead garden tools/equipment.
In an established settlement these should be quite low, involving mostly maintenance, including for
instancepaint, nails, screws, bolts, grease, glue, files, hacksaw blades, solder, wire Power would
come mostly from solar panels operating machinery and pumps on sunny days.
No fertilizers, tractor, pesticides.